Sikhism

From Bharatpedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Sikhism (/ˈsɪkɪzəm/) or Sikhi (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ Sikkhī, [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from ਸਿੱਖ, Sikh, 'disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner')[lower-roman 1] is an Indian Dharmic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent[lower-roman 2] around the end of the 15th century CE.[1][2][3][4][5][6] Sikhism is one of the youngest of the major religions and the world's fifth-largest organized religion,[7] with about 25-30 million Sikhs as of the early-21st century.[8][9] However, according to rough estimates, there are around 120–150 million (12–15 crore) Sahajdhari or non-khalsa Nanakpanthi sikhs across the world who also believe in 10 Sikh Gurus and Guru Granth Sahib.[10][11][12]

Symbol of Sikhism

Sikhism developed from the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539),[13] and of the nine Sikh gurus who succeeded him. The tenth guru, Gobind Singh (1666–1708), named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, bringing to a close the line of human gurus and establishing the scripture as the last eternal 11th living guru ,a religious spiritual/life guide for Sikhs.[14][15][16] Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will".[17] Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru (1606–1644), established the concept of mutual co-existence of the miri (political/temporal) and piri (spiritual) realms.[18]

The Sikh scripture opens with the Mul Mantar (ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ), fundamental prayer about ik onkar (, 'One God').[19] The core beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator; divine unity and equality of all humankind; engaging in seva ('selfless service'); striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all; and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[20][21][22] Following this standard, Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.[lower-roman 3][23]

Sikhism emphasizes simran (ਸਿਮਰਨ, meditation and remembrance of the teachings of Gurus),[24] which can be expressed musically through kirtan, or internally through naam japna ('meditation on His name') as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (i.e. lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego).[25]

The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam.[26] Mughal rulers of India tortured and executed two of the Sikh gurus—Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)—after they refused to convert to Islam.[27][28][29][30] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with members expressing the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī—a 'saint-soldier'.

Terminology[edit | edit source]

The majority of Sikh scriptures were originally written in the alphabet of Gurmukhī, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts historically used in present-day Pakistan and North India.[31][32] Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, meaning 'students' or 'disciples' of the Guru. The anglicised word Sikhism derives from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, which connotes the "temporal path of learning" and is rooted in the word sikhana ('to learn').[33][34]

Philosophy and teachings[edit | edit source]

A Sikh can be defined as any human being who faithfully believes in:[35]
i. One Formless Being
ii. Ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak Sahib to Guru Gobind Singh Sahib,
iii. The Guru Granth Sahib,
iv. The utterances and teachings of the ten Gurus.

Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.[lower-roman 4][lower-roman 5][36]

Scripture[edit | edit source]

There is one primary scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib. It is sometimes synonymously referred to as the Ādi Granth.[37] Chronologically, however, the Ādi Granth – literally, 'First Volume' – refers to the version of the scripture created by Guru Arjan in 1604.[38] The Gurū Granth Sāhib is the final expanded version of the scripture compiled by Guru Gobind Singh.[37][39] While the Guru Granth Sahib is an unquestioned scripture in Sikhism, another important religious text, the Dasam Granth, does not enjoy universal consensus, but is considered a secondary scripture by many Sikhs.[37]

Adi Granth[edit | edit source]

The Ādi Granth was compiled primarily by Bhai Gurdas under the supervision of Guru Arjan between the years 1603 and 1604.[40] It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the Laṇḍā script used in the Punjab at that time.[41] The Gurmukhī script was standardised by Guru Angad, the second guru of the Sikhs, for use in the Sikh scriptures and is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā and Devanāgarī scripts. An authoritative scripture was created to protect the integrity of hymns and teachings of the Sikh Gurus, and thirteen Hindu and two Muslim bhagats of the Bhakti movement sant tradition in medieval India.[42] The thirteen Hindu bhagats whose teachings were entered into the text included Ramananda, Namdev, Pipa, Ravidas, Beni, Bhikhan, Dhanna, Jaidev, Parmanand, Sadhana, Sain, Sur, Trilochan, while the two Muslim bhagats were Kabir and Sufi saint Farid.[43][44][45][46] However, the bhagats in context often spoke of transcending their religious labels, Kabir often attributed to being a Muslim states in the Adi Granth, "I am not Hindu nor Muslim."[47] The Gurus following on this message taught that different methods of devotion are for the same infinite God.[48]

Guru Granth Sahib[edit | edit source]

Gurū Granth Sāhib – the primary scripture of Sikhism

The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scripture of the Sikhs, and is regarded as the living Guru.

Compilation[edit | edit source]

The Guru Granth started as a volume of Guru Nanak's poetic compositions. Prior to his death, he passed on his volume to Guru Angad (Guru 1539–1551). The final version of the Gurū Granth Sāhib was compiled by Guru Gobind Singh in 1678. It consists of the original Ādi Granth with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's hymns. The predominant bulk of Guru Granth Sahib is compositions by seven Sikh Gurus – Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan, Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. It also contains the traditions and teachings of thirteen Hindu Bhakti movement sants (saints) such as Ramananda, Namdev among others, and two Muslim saints namely Kabir and the Sufi Sheikh Farid.[43]

The text comprises 6,000 śabads (line compositions),[37] which are poetically rendered and set to rhythmic ancient north Indian classical music.[49] The bulk of the scripture is classified into sixty rāgas, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author. The hymns in the scripture are arranged primarily by the rāgas in which they are read.[37]

Language and script[edit | edit source]

Mul Mantar written by Guru Har Rai, showing the Ik Onkar at top.

The main language used in the scripture is known as Sant Bhāṣā, a language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion (bhakti).[50] The text is printed in Gurumukhi script, believed to have been developed by Guru Angad,[37] but it shares the Indo-European roots found in numerous regional languages of India.[51]

Teachings[edit | edit source]

A group of Sikh musicians at the Golden Temple complex

The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib, states Torkel Brekke, is a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind.[52]

The Granth begins with the Mūl Mantra, an iconic verse which received Guru Nanak directly from Akal Purakh (God). The traditional Mul Mantar goes from Ik Oankar until Nanak Hosee Bhee Sach.

One God exists, truth by name, creative power, without fear, without enmity, timeless form, unborn, self-existent, by the Guru's grace.[53]
(Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥, romanized: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi)

As guru[edit | edit source]

The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh ji, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru, where Gods/Gurus word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs.[14][15][16][54]

All Sikhs are commanded to take the Granth as Guru
(Punjabi: ਸੱਬ ਸਿੱਖਣ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨਯੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ।, romanized: Sabb sikkhaṇ kō hukam hai gurū mānyō granth)

The Guru Granth Sahib is installed in Sikh Gurdwara (temple); many Sikhs bow or prostrate before it on entering the temple. The Guru Granth Sahib is installed every morning and put to bed at night in many Gurdwaras.[55] The Granth is revered as eternal gurbānī and the spiritual authority.[56]

The copies of the Guru Granth Sahib are not regarded as material objects, but as living subjects which are alive.[57] According to Myrvold, the Sikh scripture is treated with respect like a living person, in a manner similar to the Gospel in early Christian worship. Old copies of the Sikh scripture are not thrown away, rather funerary services are performed.[57]

In India the Guru Granth Sahib is even officially recognised by the Supreme Court of India as a judicial person which can receive donations and own land.[57] Yet, some Sikhs also warn that, without true comprehension of the text, veneration for the text can lead to bibliolatry, with the concrete form of the teachings becoming the object of worship instead of the teachings themselves.[57]

Relation to Hinduism and Islam[edit | edit source]

The Sikh scriptures use Hindu terminology, with references to the Vedas, and the names of gods and goddesses in Hindu bhakti movement traditions, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Rama, Krishna, but not to worship.[52][58][self-published source][59] It also refers to the spiritual concepts in Hinduism (Ishvara, Bhagavan, Brahman) and the concept of God in Islam (Allah) to assert that these are just "alternate names for the Almighty One".[60]

While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges the Vedas, Puranas and Qur'an,[61] it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam,[62] but emphasises focusing on nitnem banis like Japu (repeating mantra of the divine Name of God – WaheGuru), instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread.[63]

Dasam Granth[edit | edit source]

The Dasam Granth is a Sikh scripture which contains texts attributed to Guru Gobind Singh, including his autobiography Bachittar Natak. The major narrative in the text is on Chaubis Avtar (24 Avatars of Hindu god Vishnu), Rudra, Brahma, the Hindu warrior goddess Chandi and a story of Rama in Bachittar Natak.[64]

The Dasam Granth is a scripture of Sikhs which contains texts attributed to the Guru Gobind Singh. The Dasam Granth is important to a great number of Sikhs, however it does not have the same authority as the Guru Granth Sahib. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth like Jaap Sahib, (Amrit Savaiye), and Benti Chaupai are part of the daily prayers (Nitnem) for Sikhs.[65] The first verse of the ardās prayer is from Chandi di Var. The Dasam Granth is largely versions of Hindu mythology from the Puranas, secular stories from a variety of sources called Charitro Pakhyan – tales to protect careless men from perils of lust.[66][67]

Five versions of Dasam Granth exist, and the authenticity of the Dasam Granth has in modern times become one of the most debated topics within Sikhism. The text played a significant role in Sikh history, but in modern times parts of the text have seen antipathy and discussion among Sikhs.[64]

Janamsakhis[edit | edit source]

The Janamsākhīs (literally birth stories), are writings which profess to be biographies of Guru Nanak. Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide a hagiographic look at Guru Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism. There are several – often contradictory and sometimes unreliable – Janamsākhīs and they are not held in the same regard as other sources of scriptural knowledge.

Observances[edit | edit source]

Observant Sikhs adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. The daily recitation of the divine name of God VaheGuru and from a memory of specific passages from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, like the Japu (or Japjī, literally chant) hymns is recommended immediately after rising and bathing. Baptized Sikhs recite the five-morning prayers, the evening and night prayer. Family customs include both reading passages from the scripture and attending the gurudwara (also gurduārā, meaning the doorway to God; sometimes transliterated as Gurudwara). There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs reside. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste, or race.

Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of the singing of passages from the scripture. Sikhs will commonly enter the gurdwara, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads. The recitation of the eighteenth century ardās is also customary for attending Sikhs. The ardās recalls past sufferings and glories of the community, invoking divine grace for all humanity.[68]

The gurdwara is also the location for the historic Sikh practice of "Langar" or the community meal. All gurdwaras are open to anyone of any faith for a free meal, always vegetarian.[69] People eat together, and the kitchen is maintained and serviced by Sikh community volunteers.[70]

Sikh festivals/events[edit | edit source]

Guru Amar Das chose festivals for celebration by Sikhs like Vaisakhi, wherein he asked Sikhs to assemble and share the festivities as a community.[71][72]

Vaisakhi is one of the most important festivals of Sikhs, while other significant festivals commemorate the birth, lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs. Historically, these festivals have been based on the moon calendar Bikrami calendar.[73] In 2003, the SGPC, the Sikh organisation in charge of upkeep of the historical gurdwaras of Punjab, adopted Nanakshahi calendar.[73] The new calendar is highly controversial among Sikhs and is not universally accepted. Sikh festivals include the following:

  • Vaisakhi which includes Parades and Nagar Kirtan and occurs on 13 April or 14 April. Sikhs celebrate it because on this day, which fell on 30 March 1699, the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, inaugurated the Khalsa, the 11th body of Guru Granth Sahib and leader of Sikhs until eternity.
    • Nagar Kirtan involves the processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community. While practiced at any time, it is customary in the month of Visakhi (or Vaisakhi). Traditionally, the procession is led by the saffron-robed Panj Piare (the five beloved of the Guru), who are followed by the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy Sikh scripture, which is placed on a float.
  • Band Chor Diwas has been another important Sikh festival in its history.[74] In recent years, instead of Diwali, the post-2003 calendar released by SGPC has named it the Bandi Chhor divas.[75] Sikhs celebrate Guru Hargobind's release from the Gwalior Fort, with several innocent Raja kings who were also imprisoned by Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1619. This day continues to be commemorated on the same day of Hindu festival of Diwali, with lights, fireworks and festivities.
  • Hola Mohalla is a tradition started by Guru Gobind Singh. It starts the day after Sikhs celebrate Holi,[76] sometimes referred to as Hola.[77] Guru Gobind Singh modified Holi with a three-day Hola Mohalla extension festival of martial arts. The extension started the day after the Holi festival in Anandpur Sahib, where Sikh soldiers would train in mock battles, compete in horsemanship, athletics, archery and military exercises.[78][79]
  • Gurpurbs are celebrations or commemorations based on the lives of the Sikh Gurus. They tend to be either birthdays or celebrations of Sikh martyrdom. All ten Gurus have Gurpurbs on the Nanakshahi calendar, but it is Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh who have a gurpurb that is widely celebrated in Gurdwaras and Sikh homes. The martyrdoms are also known as a Shaheedi Gurpurbs, which mark the martyrdom anniversary of Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur.

Ceremonies and customs[edit | edit source]

Sikh funeral procession, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh

Khalsa Sikhs have also supported and helped develop major pilgrimage traditions to sacred sites such as Harmandir Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib, Patna Sahib, Hazur Nanded Sahib, Hemkund Sahib and others.[80] Sikh pilgrims and Sikhs of other sects customarily consider these as holy and a part of their Tirath.[81] The Hola Mohalla around the festival of Holi, for example, is a ceremonial and customary gathering every year in Anandpur Sahib attracting over 100,000 Sikhs.[82][83] Major Sikh temples feature a sarovar where some Sikhs take a customary dip. Some take home the sacred water of the tank particularly for sick friends and relatives,[84][85] believing that the waters of such sacred sites have restorative powers and the ability to purify one's karma.[86][lower-roman 6][84] The various Gurus of Sikhism have had different approaches to pilgrimage.[87]

Upon a child's birth, the Guru Granth Sahib is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left hand corner of the left page. All boys are given the last name Singh, and all girls are given the last name Kaur (this was once a title which was conferred on an individual upon joining the Khalsa).[88]

The Sikh marriage ritual includes the anand kāraj ceremony.[89][90] The marriage ceremony is performed in front of the Guru Granth Sahib by a baptized Khalsa, Granthi of the Gurdwara.[91][92] The tradition of circling the Guru Granth Sahib and Anand Karaj among Khalsa is practised since the fourth Guru, Guru Ram Das. Its official recognition and adoption came in 1909, during the Singh Sabha Movement.[92]

Upon death, the body of a Sikh is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any respectful means of disposing the body may be employed. The kīrtan sōhilā and ardās prayers are performed during the funeral ceremony (known as antim sanskār).[93]

Initiation and the Khalsa[edit | edit source]

Khalsa (meaning "pure and sovereign") is the collective name given by Guru Gobind Singh to those Sikhs who have been fully initiated by taking part in a ceremony called ammrit sañcār (nectar ceremony).[94] During this ceremony, sweetened water is stirred with a double-edged sword while liturgical prayers are sung; it is offered to the initiating Sikh, who ritually drinks it.[94] Many Sikhs are not formally and fully initiated, as they do not undergo this ceremony, but do adhere to some components of Sikhism and identify as Sikhs. The initiated Sikh, who is believed to be reborn, is referred to as Amritdhari or Khalsa Sikh, while those who are not initiated or baptised are referred to as Kesdhari or Sahajdhari Sikhs.[94][95]

The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab.[94] It was on that occasion that Gobind Singh baptised the Pañj Piārē – the five beloved ones, who in turn baptised Guru Gobind Singh himself. To males who initiated, the last name Singh, meaning "lion", was given, while the last name Kaur, meaning "princess", was given to baptised Sikh females.[94]

Baptised Sikhs wear five items, called the Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj kakkē or pañj kakār), at all times. The five items are: kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet), kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment).[94] The Five Ks have both practical and symbolic purposes.[96]

History[edit | edit source]

Sikh people[edit | edit source]

Sikhs in India[97]
State/UT Percentage
Punjab 58%
Chandigarh 13.1%
Haryana 4.9%
Delhi 3.4%
Uttarakhand 2.3%
Jammu and Kashmir 1.9%
Rajasthan 1.3%
Himachal Pradesh 1.2%

Estimates state that Sikhism has some 25-30 million followers worldwide.[98] But however according to rough estimates, there are around 120–150 million (12–15 crore) Sahajdhari or non-khalsa Nanakpanthi Sikhs across the world who also believe in 10 Sikh Gurus and Guru Granth Sahib.[99][100][101] According to Pew Research, a religion demographics and research group in Washington DC, "more than nine-in-ten Sikhs are in India, but there are also sizable Sikh communities in the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada."[102] Within India, the Sikh population is found in every state and union territory, but it is predominantly found in the northwestern and northern states. Only in the state of Punjab do Sikhs constitute a majority (58% of the total, per 2011 census).[97] The states and union territories of India where Sikhs constitute more than 1.5% of its population are Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir.[97] Forming 4.7% of the total population, the western Canadian province of British Columbia is home to over 200,000 Sikhs and is the only province (or similar major subnational division) in the world outside India with Sikhism as the second most followed religion among the population.[103][104]

Sikhism was founded in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan. Some of the Gurus were born near Lahore and in other parts of Pakistan. Prior to 1947, in British India, millions of Sikhs lived in what later became Pakistan. During the partition, Sikhs and Hindus left the newly created Muslim-majority Pakistan and mostly moved to Hindu-majority India — with some moving to Muslim-majority Afghanistan[105]) — while numerous Muslims in India moved to Pakistan.[106][107] According to 2017 news reports, only about 20,000 Sikhs remain in Pakistan, and their population is dwindling (0.01% of the country's estimated 200 million population). The Sikhs in Pakistan, like others in the region, have been "rocked by an Islamist insurgency for more than a decade" and face discrimination in every day life.[108][109]

Sikh sects[edit | edit source]

Sikh sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or hold other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa Sikhs.[110][111] The major historic sects of Sikhism have included Udasi, Nirmala, Nanakpanthi, Khalsa, Sahajdhari, Namdhari Kuka, Nirankari, and Sarvaria.[112]

Namdhari Sikhs, also called the Kuka Sikhs are a sect of Sikhism known for their crisp white dress and horizontal pagari (turban).[113][91] Above: Namdhari singer and musicians.

The early Sikh sects were Udasis and Minas founded by Sri Chand – the elder son of Guru Nanak, and Prithi Chand – the elder son of Guru Ram Das respectively, in parallel to the official succession of the Sikh Gurus. Later on Ramraiya sect grew in Dehradun with the patronage of Aurangzeb.[114] Many splintered Sikh communities formed during the Mughal Empire era. Some of these sects were financially and administratively supported by the Mughal rulers in the hopes of gaining a more favorable and compliant citizenry.[111][114]

After the collapse of Mughal Empire, and particularly during the rule of Ranjit Singh, Udasi Sikhs protected Sikh shrines, preserved the Sikh scripture and rebuilt those that were desecrated or destroyed during the Muslim–Sikh wars. However, Udasi Sikhs kept idols and images inside these Sikh temples.[115] In the 19th century, Namdharis and Nirankaris sects were formed in Sikhism, seeking to reform and return to what each believed was the pure form of Sikhism.[116]

All these sects differ from Khalsa orthodox Sikhs in their beliefs and practices, such as continuing to solemnize their weddings around fire and being strictly vegetarian.[113][91] Many accept the concept of living Gurus such as Guru Baba Dyal Singh. The Nirankari sect, though unorthodox, was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa and the contemporary-era Sikh beliefs and practices.[117][118] Another significant Sikh sect of the 19th century was the Radhasoami movement in Punjab led by Baba Shiv Dyal.[119] Other contemporary era Sikhs sects include the 3HO, formed in 1971, which exists outside India, particularly in North America and Europe.[119][120][121]

Sikh castes[edit | edit source]

According to Surinder Jodhka, the state of Punjab with a Sikh majority has the "largest proportion of scheduled caste population in India". Although decried by Sikhism, Sikhs have practiced a caste system. The system, along with untouchability, has been more common in rural parts of Punjab. The landowning dominant Sikh castes, states Jodhka, "have not shed all their prejudices against the lower castes or dalits; while dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar." The Sikh dalits of Punjab have tried to build their own gurdwara, other local level institutions and sought better material circumstances and dignity. According to Jodhka, due to economic mobility in contemporary Punjab, castes no longer mean an inherited occupation, nor are work relations tied to a single location.[122] In 1953, the government of India acceded to the demands of the Sikh leader, Master Tara Singh, to include Sikh dalit castes in the list of scheduled castes.[123] In the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs.[123]

Over 60% of Sikhs belong to the Jat caste, which is an agrarian caste. Despite being very small in numbers, the mercantile Khatri and Arora castes wield considerable influence within the Sikh community. Other common Sikh castes include Sainis, Ramgarhias (artisans), Ahluwalias (formerly brewers), Kambojs (rural caste), Labanas, Kumhars and the two Dalit castes, known in Sikh terminology as the Mazhabis (the Chuhras) and the Ravidasias (the Chamars).[124]

Sikh diaspora[edit | edit source]

Sikhs celebrating Vaisakhi in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Sikhism is the fourth-largest amongst the medium-sized world religions, and one of the youngest.[125][126][127] Worldwide, there are 30 million Sikhs, which makes up 0.4% of the world's population. Approximately 75% of Sikhs live in Punjab, where they constitute over 60% of the state's population. Large communities of Sikhs migrate to the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh population in India with 1.1 million Sikhs as per 2001 census, and large immigrant communities of Sikhs can be found across India. However, Sikhs only comprise about 2% of the Indian population.[128]

Sikh migration to Canada began in the 19th century and led to the creation of significant Sikh communities, predominantly in South Vancouver and Surrey, British Columbia, and Brampton, Ontario. Today temples, newspapers, radio stations, and markets cater to these large, multi-generational Indo-Canadian groups. Sikh festivals such as Vaisakhi and Bandi Chhor are celebrated in those Canadian cities by the largest groups of followers in the world outside the Punjab.

Sikhs also migrated to East Africa, West Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia. These communities developed as Sikhs migrated out of Punjab to fill in gaps in imperial labour markets.[129] In the early twentieth century a significant community began to take shape on the west coast of the United States. Smaller populations of Sikhs are found within many countries in Western Europe, Pakistan, Mauritius, Malaysia, Philippines, Fiji, Nepal, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Singapore, United States, and many other countries.

Prohibitions in Sikhism[edit | edit source]

Some major prohibitions include:

  1. Haircuts: Cutting or removing hair from any body part is strictly forbidden including shaving or trimming facial and nostril hairs for both Amritdhari (formally baptized) and Keshdhari (non-baptized and practicing) Sikhs.
  2. Intoxication: Consumption of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and other intoxicants is not allowed for Amritdhari Sikhs and Keshdhari Sikhs. Drugs and tobacco are forbidden for all.[130][131][132] Cannabis is generally prohibited, but ritually consumed in edible form by some Sikhs.[133][134]
  3. Gambling: Gambling, also called jooa in traditional Indian languages,[clarification needed] be it in any form like lottery, roulette, poker, American or British bingo, is prohibited in some codes of conduct, such as the Sikh Rehat Maryada.
  4. Priestly class: Sikhism does not have priests, as they were abolished by Guru Gobind Singh (the 10th Guru of Sikhism).[135] The only position he left was a Granthi to look after the Guru Granth Sahib; any Sikh is free to become Granthi or read from the Guru Granth Sahib.[135]
  5. Eating meat killed in a ritualistic manner (kutha meat): Sikhs are strictly prohibited from eating meat killed in a ritualistic manner (such as halal or kosher, known collectively as kutha meat in Sikhism),[136] or any meat where langar is served.[137] It is patit for Sikhs to eat anything which is an animal product from a ritualised slaughter.[citation needed] For many Sikhs (and in some Sikh sects, e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha) Damdami Taksal, Nanaksar, eating any meat is believed to be forbidden, but this is not a universally held belief.[138][clarification needed]
  6. Having extramarital sexual relations[130][131][139][140]

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Sikhism (indigenously known as Sikhī) originated from the word Sikh, which comes from the Sanskrit root śiṣya meaning "disciple", or śikṣa meaning "instruction". Singh, Khushwant. 2006. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8. p. 15.Kosh, Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan. https://web.archive.org/web/20050318143533/http://www.ik13.com/online_library.htm
  2. "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated in Wakanda."Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7735-9087-8.
  3. "Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions." Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2008). Sikhism. London: Kuperard. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.
  4. "As an Indian religion, Sikhism affirms transmigration, the continued rebirth after death". Brekke, Torkel (2014). Reichberg, G. M.; Syse, H. (eds.). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0 – via Google Books.
  5. "Sikhism, Indian religion founded in the Punjab in the late 15th century." (McLeod 2019/1998).
  6. The Sikh scripture contains verses which have been literally interpreted as relevant to pilgrimage and taking dips in waters for salvific value; some criticize it (AG 358, 75); others support it (AG 623–624).

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Almasy, Steve. 2018 [2012]. "Who are Sikhs and what do they believe?" CNN International. US: Turner Broadcasting System.
  2. Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  3. Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.
  4. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.
  5. "Religions: Sikhism". BBC.com. 2014.
  6. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1993). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. "Themes in Comparative Religion" series. Wallingford, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-333-54107-4.
  7. Almasy, Steve (5 August 2012). "Who are Sikhs and what do they believe?". CNN Digital. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  8. McLeod, William Hewat. 2019 [1998]. "Sikhism". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  9. Sikhs in Wolverhampton celebrate 550 years of Guru Nanak
  10. Goyal, Divya (10 November 2019). "Explained: Who are Nanak Naam Lewa, and why Kartarpur Corridor can't be limited to Sikhs". The Indian Express. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  11. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2096673/1-imran-khan-won-hearts-140-million-sikhs-sidhu
  12. https://wap.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/pak-invites-sikh-community-to-invest-in-commercial-projects-along-nankana-kartarpur-corridor-119011300615_1.html
  13. Singh, Patwant (2000). The Sikhs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 17. ISBN 0-375-40728-6.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Fenech, Louis, and William Hewat McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-3600-4. pp. 17, 84–5.
  15. 15.0 15.1 James, William (2011). God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston. McGill–Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3889-4. pp. 241–42.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–25, 123–24. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.
  17. Marwaha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions: Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism and Contemporary Psychology. Concept Publishing. pp. 205–206. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0.
  18. Marty, Martin E. (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9.
  19. Singh, Pashaura (2003). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-908773-0.
  20. Kalsi, Sewa Singh. Sikhism. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. pp. 41–50.
  21. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 200.
  22. Teece, Geoff (2004). Sikhism: Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.
  23. Reichberg, Gregory M.; Syse, Henrik (2014). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 672–674. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.
  24. Pattanaik, Devdutt (2019). "Where Hinduism and Sikhism meet". Mumbai Mirror.
  25. Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth; Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh (2012). The Socially Involved Renunciate: Guru Nanak's Discourse to the Nath Yogis. State University of New York Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7914-7950-6.
  26. Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-04945-5. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three (Khushwant Singh 1999: 106; Ganda Singh 1935: 73).
  27. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  28. Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.
  29. Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.
  30. McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
  31. Bahri, Hardev. "Gurmukhi". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
  32. Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiii. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0.
  33. Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 3, 12–13. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
  34. Chahal, Devinder (July–December 2006). "Understanding Sikhism in the Science Age" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism: The Research Journal (2): 3. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
  35. Rehat Maryada Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  36. "Classification of Religions", Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.4 37.5 Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8, pp. xvii–xx
  38. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, pp. 45–46
  39. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, pp. 49–50
  40. Trumpp, Ernest (2004) [1877]. The Ādi Granth or the Holy Scriptures of the Sikhs. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. xxxi. ISBN 978-81-215-0244-3.
  41. Grierson, George Abraham (1967) [1927]. The Linguistic Survey of India. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 624. ISBN 978-81-85395-27-2.
  42. Nesbitt, E. (2014). Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 360–369. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  43. 43.0 43.1 Shapiro, Michael (2002). Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. Journal of the American Oriental Society. pp. 924, 925.
  44. Gulati, Mahinder (2008). Comparative Religious and Philosophies: Anthropomorphism and Divinity. Atlantic. p. 302. ISBN 978-81-269-0902-5.
  45. Singha, H. S. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  46. Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.
  47. Eraly, Abraham (2015). The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate. Penguin UK. ISBN 978-93-5118-658-8. The main thrust of Kabir's mission was to unite Hindus and Muslims in a common quest for god realisation. 'Hindus and Muslims have the same god,, he held. 'God is the breath of all breath ... Look within your heart, for there you will find [God] ... All men and women in the world are his living forms.' Although many of his sayings had a strong Hindu flavour in them—presumably because of Ramananda's influence—he made no distinction between Hinduism and Islam Similarly, though he usually referred to god as Hari or Rama, he used those words as synonyms of god, and not as the names of particular deities. 'I am not Hindu nor Muslim; Allah-Ram is the breath of my body,' he stated, and went on to declare that All that lives and dies, they are all one. The this and that haggling, is done.
  48. Susanne, Scholz (2013). God Loves Diversity and Justice. Lexington Books. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-7391-7318-3. The Sikh Divine comprises every imaginable theological ideal! Hindu, Buddhist, Tantric, and Islamic views that were current in medieval India come together in the wide-ranging literary spectrum of the GGS. The stereotypical oppositions between the Indic and Abrahamic worldviews of the day are transcended: "Some call it Rama, some call it Khuda; some worship it as Vishnu, some as Allah" (GGS: 885). Interestingly, even the atheistic Buddhist Nirvana is not omitted: "Itself Nirvana, It itself relishes pleasures" (GGS: 97). "God" or "gods" or "no god" alike are recognized as part of the infinite One! "Always, always you alone are the One Reality – sada sada tun eku hai" (GGS: 139). Persian terminology is used to emphasize the unity of being: "asti ek digari kui ek tui ek tui – Only the One is, there is none other; Only you, you only" (GGS: 144). Again, "hindu turk ka sahib ek  – Hindus and Muslims share the One sovereign" (GGS: 1158). (The term "Turk" referred to all Muslims in this period.) Since everything is a manifestation of That One being, all the manifestations would be a part of it. No god, no body, and no thing is excluded from this all pervasive being
  49. Anna S. King and JL Brockington (2005), The Intimate Other: Love Divine in Indic Religions, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-81-250-2801-7, pp. 359–361
  50. Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. London: Hamlyn. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
  51. Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind (2005); Teachings of the Sikh Gurus; Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge; ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8, pp. xxi–xxxii
  52. 52.0 52.1 Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-45038-6, pp. 673, 675, 672–686
  53. Mandair, Arvind (2008). Pemberton, Kelly (ed.). Shared Idioms, Sacred Symbols, and the Articulation of Identities in South Asia. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-415-95828-8.
  54. Jane Bingham (2007), Sikhism, Atlas of World Faiths, ISBN 978-1-59920-059-0, pp. 19–20
  55. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 44
  56. Brekke, Torkel (2014). Reichberg, Gregory M.; Syse, Henrik (eds.). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 675. ISBN 978-0-521-45038-6.
  57. 57.0 57.1 57.2 57.3 Kristina Myrvold (2016). "Making the Scripture a Person: Reinventing Death Rituals of Guru Granth Sahib in Sikhism", pp. 134–136, 142–143, 152–155; In: Kristina Myrvold (2016), The Death of Sacred Texts: Ritual Disposal and Renovation of Texts in World Religions, Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge
  58. Sinha, A. K. (2013), Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin, Xlibris, ISBN 978-1-4836-6308-1, pp. 204–216[self-published source]
  59. Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. pp. xxxiv–xli. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
  60. Singh, Nirbhai (1990); Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations, New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers; pp. 115–122
  61. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 157
  62. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 40
  63. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 155–156. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Deol, J. (2000). Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh; Shackle, Christopher; Singh, Gurharpal (eds.). Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-0-7007-1389-9.
  65. Robert Zaehner (1988), The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, Hutchinson, ISBN 978-0-09-173576-0, pp. 426–427
  66. Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. p. xx. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
  67. William McLeod (2009), The A to Z of Sikhism, Toronto: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-8108-6828-1, p. 151
  68. Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. London: Hamlyn. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
  69. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4, p. 148
  70. McWilliams, Mark (2014). Food & Material Culture: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2013. Oxford Symposium. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-909248-40-3.
  71. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4. Since the time of Guru Amar Das it has been customary for Sikhs to assemble before their Guru.
  72. Kuiper, Kathleen (2010). The Culture of India. Rosen. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.
  73. 73.0 73.1 Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
  74. Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 128–130. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
  75. Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 6, 124. ISBN 978-0-19-106276-6.
  76. McLeod, W. H. (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
  77. Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 192–193. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
  78. Wellman, James K., Jr.; Lombardi, Clark (2012). Religion and Human Security: A Global Perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 112 note 18. ISBN 978-0-19-982775-6.
  79. Kaur Singh, Nikky-Guninder (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. London / New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-1-84885-321-8.
  80. Oberoi, Harjot (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 43–49, 68, 327–328. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.
  81. Geaves, Ron (2011). Ferrari, Fabrizio (ed.). Health and Religious Rituals in South Asia: Disease, Possession and Healing. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-1-136-84629-8.
  82. Thursby, Gene R. (1992). The Sikhs. Brill Academic. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-90-04-09554-0.
  83. Cole, W. O.; Sambhi, Piara Singh (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 134–135, 168. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5.
  84. 84.0 84.1 Singha, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. pp. 7, 16, 27. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
  85. Kaur Singh, Nikky-Guninder (2004). Sikhism. Infobase. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-4381-1779-9.
  86. Thursby, Gene R. (1992). The Sikhs. Brill Academic. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-90-04-09554-0.
  87. Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 5–6, 29, 60–61. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  88. Loehlin, Clinton Herbert (1964) [1958]. The Sikhs and Their Scriptures (2nd ed.). Lucknow Publishing. p. 42.
  89. Kaur Singh, Nikky-Guninder (2005). The Birth of the Khalsa: A Feminist Re-Memory of Sikh Identity. Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7914-6583-7. The name of the wedding ceremony, anand karaj (anand=bliss, karaj=event), is derived from Guru Amar Das's rapturous hymn Anand (bliss) and institutionalized by the fourth Sikh Guru, Guru Ram Das.
  90. Skinner Keller, Rosemary; Radford Ruether, Rosemary; Cantlon, Marie (2006). Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Indiana University Press. p. 700. ISBN 978-0-253-34687-2.
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 Haar, Kristen; Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009). Sikhism. Infobase. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
  92. 92.0 92.1 Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 33–34, 220. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  93. "Sikh Reht Maryada – Funeral Ceremonies (Antam Sanskar)". Archived from the original on 6 April 2002. Retrieved 8 June 2006.
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 94.5 Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
  95. Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  96. Simmonds, David (1992). Believers All: A Book of Six World Religions. Cheltenham, England: Nelson Thornes. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-17-437057-4.
  97. 97.0 97.1 97.2 Religion demographics: 2011 Census, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
  98. https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-birmingham-50374567
  99. Goyal, Divya (10 November 2019). "Explained: Who are Nanak Naam Lewa, and why Kartarpur Corridor can't be limited to Sikhs". The Indian Express. Retrieved 30 November 2020.
  100. https://tribune.com.pk/story/2096673/1-imran-khan-won-hearts-140-million-sikhs-sidhu
  101. https://wap.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/pak-invites-sikh-community-to-invest-in-commercial-projects-along-nankana-kartarpur-corridor-119011300615_1.html
  102. The Global Religious Landscape: Other Religions, Pew Research Center, Washington DC.
  103. "B.C. breaks records when it comes to religion and the lack thereof".
  104. "NHS Profile, British Columbia, 2011". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  105. "Explainer: Who are the Afghan Sikhs?". The Conversation. 20 August 2014.
  106. Kosinski, L. A.; Elahi, K. M. (2012). Population Redistribution and Development in South Asia. Springer. pp. 186–203. ISBN 978-94-009-5309-3.
  107. Eltringham, Nigel; Maclean, Pam (2014). Remembering Genocide. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. pp. 30–32. ISBN 978-1-317-75421-3.
  108. Pakistan's dwindling Sikh community wants improved security, The Dawn, Pakistan (17 April 2017)
  109. Pakistan's Sikh community disappointed at being 'left out' of national census, Ali Akbar, The Dawn (March 2017)
  110. Syan, Hardip Singh (2014). Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 170–180. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  111. 111.0 111.1 Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2014). Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 350–359. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  112. Oberoi, Harjot (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.
  113. 113.0 113.1 "Sects and other groups: Sikhism", Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
  114. 114.0 114.1 Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  115. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–377. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  116. Fenech, Louis E.; McLeod, W. H. (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 151, 273. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
  117. "Sects in Sikhism", Encyclopædia Britannica Online |access-date=7 August 2018}}
  118. Kuiper, Kathleen. The Culture of India. Rosen. p. 141.
  119. 119.0 119.1 Haar, Kristen; Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009). Sikhism. Infobase. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
  120. Dusenbery, Verne (2014). Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 560–570. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  121. Mooney, Nicola (2012). "Reading Weber Among the Sikhs: Asceticism and Capitalism in the 3HO/Sikh Dharma". Sikh Formations. 8 (3): 417–436. doi:10.1080/17448727.2012.745305. ISSN 1744-8727. S2CID 145775040.
  122. Jodhka, Surinder S (11–17 May 2002). "Caste and Untouchability in Rural Punjab". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (19): 1813–1823. JSTOR 4412102.
  123. 123.0 123.1 Puri, Harish K. (2004). Dalits in Regional Context. ISBN 978-81-7033-871-0.
  124. "Sikhism (religion)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
  125. Partridge, Christopher (1 November 2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. pp. 429–. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3.
  126. McDowell, Michael; Brown, Nathan Robert (2009). World Religions at Your Fingertips. Alpha Books. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-59257-846-7.
  127. Teece, Geoff (2005). Sikhism. Black Rabbit Books. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.
  128. Singh Kalsi, Sewa (2007). Sikhism. London: Bravo Ltd. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.
  129. Ballantyne, Tony (2006). Between Colonialism and Diaspora: Sikh Cultural Formations in an Imperial World. Duke University Press. pp. 69–74. ISBN 978-0-8223-3824-6.
  130. 130.0 130.1 Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India
  131. 131.0 131.1 Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India
  132. Macauliffe 1909, p. xxi.
  133. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (March 2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 378–. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  134. Singh, Pashaura; Hawley, Michael (7 December 2012). Re-imagining South Asian Religions: Essays in Honour of Professors Harold G. Coward and Ronald W. Neufeldt. Brill Academic. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-90-04-24236-4.
  135. 135.0 135.1 "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". sikhs.org.
  136. Singh, I. J. Sikhs and Sikhism. Manohar Publishers. ISBN 978-81-7304-058-0
  137. Singha, H. S.; Hemkunt, Satwant Kaur. 1994. Sikhism: A Complete Introduction. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. ISBN 81-7010-245-6
  138. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur. Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2005, ISBN 0-7546-5202-5, p. 51.
  139. "The Sikh Rehat Maryada: Section Four". Gateway to Sikhism.
  140. Jakobsh, Doris R. (2003). Relocating Gender in Sikh History: Transformation, Meaning and Identity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 39–40.

Further reading[edit | edit source]

  • Banga, Indu (2017). Jacobsen, Knut A.; et al. (eds.). Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Brill Academic. ISBN 978-90-04-29745-6.
  • Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (1997), The Sikh Reference Book; Sikh University Press / Singh Brothers Amritsar, 1997.
  • Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (2005), Dictionary of Sikh Philosophy; Sikh University Press / Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2005.
  • Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (2008), Sikh Twareekh; Sikh University Press / Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2008.
  • Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (2012), Sikh History (in 10 volumes); Sikh University Press / Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2010–2012.
  • Duggal, Kartar Singh (1988). Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism. Himalayan Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-89389-109-1.
  • Kaur, Surjit; Amongst the Sikhs: Reaching for the Stars; New Delhi: Roli Books, 2003, ISBN 81-7436-267-3
  • Khalsa, Guru Fatha Singh; Five Paragons of Peace: Magic and Magnificence in the Guru's Way, Toronto: Monkey Minds Press, 2010, ISBN 0-9682658-2-0, GuruFathaSingh.com
  • Khalsa, Shanti Kaur; The History of Sikh Dharma of the Western Hemisphere; Espanola, New Mexico, US: Sikh Dharma; 1995 ISBN 0-9639847-4-8
  • Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8.
  • Singh, Patwant (1999). The Sikhs. Random House. ISBN 978-0-385-50206-1.
  • Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur, Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate; 2005 ISBN 0-7546-5202-5

External links[edit | edit source]