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COVID-19 pandemic by country and territory

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COVID‑19 pandemic
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map per Capita.svg
Confirmed cases per 100,000 population
as of
  •   >10%
  •   3-10%
  •   1-3%
  •   0.3-1%
  •   0.1-0.3%
  •   0.03-0.1%
  •   0-0.3%
  •   None or no data
Cases per country
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map.svg
Total confirmed cases per country
as of
  •   10,000,000+
  •   1,000,000-9,999,999
  •   100,000–999,999
  •   10,000–99,999
  •   1,000–9,999
  •   100–999
  •   1–99
  •   None or no data
Deaths per capita
COVID-19 Outbreak World Map Total Deaths per Capita.svg
Confirmed deaths per 100 population date shown on map
  •   100+
  •   10–100
  •   1–10
  •   0.1–1
  •   0–0.1
  •   None or no data
A nurse caring for a patient with COVID‑19 in an intensive care unit
Meeting of the Italian government task force to face the coronavirus outbreak, 23 February 2020
Taiwanese 33rd Chemical Corps spraying disinfectant on a street in Taipei, Taiwan
Burial in Hamadan, Iran
Workers unloading boxes of medical supplies at Villamor Air Base
Clockwise, starting from top:
  • A nurse caring for a COVID‑19 patient in an intensive care unit aboard a U.S. hospital ship
  • Disinfection vehicles in Taiwan
  • Donated medical supplies being received in the Philippines
  • Burial in Iran
  • The Italian government's outbreak task force
DiseaseCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19)
Virus strainSevere acute respiratory syndrome
coronavirus 2
(SARS‑CoV‑2)[lower-alpha 1]
SourceProbably bats, possibly via pangolins[2][3]
LocationWorldwide
First outbreakChina[4]
Index caseWuhan, Hubei, China
30°37′11″N 114°15′28″E / 30.61972°N 114.25778°E / 30.61972; 114.25778
Date1 December 2019 (2019-12-01)–present[4]
Confirmed cases148,815,508[5]
Deaths
3,138,173[5]
Territories
192[5]

The COVID-19 pandemic, also called the coronavirus pandemic, is a current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).[1][6][lower-alpha 2] The outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019. The World Health Organization (WHO) called it a pandemic on 11 March 2020.[7][8][9][10][11] The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses gave the virus its name. As of February 19, 2021, more than 110 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories. More than three million people have died of COVID-19,[12] and more than 85 million people have defeated, or recovered from the disease.[12][13][14]

The virus usually moves from one person to another with small drops made when coughing[15][16] or sneezing.[17] It mostly spreads when people are close to each other, which is why social distancing is encouraged. Coronavirus can also spread when people touch a surface with the virus, and then they touch their face.[16][17] Common symptoms include fever, cough, and trouble breathing.[18] The illness can worsen with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.[19] As of January 2021, a number of vaccines for COVID-19 have been developed, but only a few have been approved as safe for use. The first vaccine to be approved was created by Pfizer and BioNTech,[20] followed by the Oxford / AstraZeneca [21] vaccine. Vaccine distribution has begun in many countries in Europe, North America, South America and Asia.[22] The United Kingdom was the first western country to administer a COVID-19 vaccine.[23] No antiviral medicine for COVID-19 is available.[24] Doctors usually give patients supportive therapy instead.[25] People can avoid spreading the virus by regularly washing their hands, covering their mouth when coughing, maintaining distance from other people, staying away from crowds, wearing medical or cloth face coverings, and being alone for people who think they are infected, also known as quarantining.[24]

The outbreak might be from a coronavirus that usually lives in bats. This infected another animal, possibly a pangolin. It then changed inside that other animal until it could infect humans.[26] It possibly originated at a wet market, Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market.[27] A 55-year-old person from Hubei province was the first human to contract the virus on November 17, 2019.[28] A 61-year-old man who was a regular customer at the market was the first person to die from the virus on January 11, 2020.[29] The exact origin of the virus is still unknown since the market in Wuhan sold a variety of live wild animals in cages. Chinese tourists have spread the virus by traveling to other countries and made it a worldwide pandemic.[30]

Racism and xenophobia against Chinese people and Asians increased during the pandemic.

In November 2020, two companies, Pfizer and Moderna, said they had finished making COVID-19 vaccines. Both are over 90% effective. Two mRNA vaccines, one by Pfizer and one by Moderna, have been tested. Both were over 90% effective.[31] Countries began planning to give the vaccine to many people.[32] [33][34] 17 other vaccines have been approved by at least one country, and many others are being developed.

The United States has the most deaths from the virus. More than 600,000 Americans have died from the virus.[35] California had the most COVID-19 cases in the country.[36]


Video summary (script) on the coronavirus disease (4:12 min)

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

Epidemiology is the study of how diseases affect the health and illness of groups of people.

Background[edit | edit source]

On 31 December 2019, Chinese health authorities reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) a cluster of viral pneumonia cases of unknown cause in Wuhan,[37][38] and an investigation was launched in early January 2020.[39]

On 9 June 2020, a Harvard University study suggested that COVID-19 may have been spreading in China as early as August 2019, based on hospital car park usage and web search trends.[40]

Cases[edit | edit source]

Cases means the number of people who have been tested for COVID-19 and have tested positive.[41] These cases are according to Johns Hopkins University.

Deaths[edit | edit source]

Deceased in a 16 m (53 ft) "mobile morgue" outside a hospital in Hackensack, New Jersey

Most people who contract COVID-19 recover. For those who do not, the time between the start of symptoms and death usually ranges from 6 to 41 days, but most of the time about 14 days.[42] This data are recorded by the WHO.

Duration[edit | edit source]

On 11 March 2020, the WHO said that the pandemic could be controlled.[7]

Symptoms[edit | edit source]

Symptoms of COVID-19. There are reports that even people who do not show symptoms can spread it.[43]

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, COVID-19 makes people feel sick in different ways, but it usually affects the lungs. People usually cough and have difficulty breathing. They often also have a fever, chills, headache, pain in their muscles, or trouble tasting or smelling things,[44] which can often be confused with the flu virus. [45]

According to an April 2020 study by the American Gastroenterological Association, COVID-19 can make sick people vomit or have diarrhea, but this is rare. They said about 7.7% of COVID-19 patients vomited, about 7.8% had diarrhea and about 3.6% had pain in their stomachs.[46]

Data[edit | edit source]

Location[lower-alpha 3] Cases[lower-alpha 4] Deaths[lower-alpha 5] Recov.[lower-alpha 6] Ref.
World[lower-alpha 7] 148,815,508 3,138,173 86,344,434 [5]
United States[lower-alpha 8] 32,375,602 579,162 No data [54]
India [55]
Brazil 14,446,541 395,324 12,992,442 [56][57]
France[lower-alpha 9] 5,534,313 103,603 No data [58][59]
Russia[lower-alpha 10] 4,787,273 109,367 4,411,098 [60]
Turkey[lower-alpha 11] 4,710,582 39,057 4,167,263 [64]
United Kingdom[lower-alpha 12] 4,409,631 127,451 No data [66]
Italy 3,981,512 119,912 3,413,451 [67]
Spain[lower-alpha 13] 3,496,134 77,855 No data [68]
Germany[lower-alpha 14] 3,307,769 82,344 2,910,042 [70][69]
Argentina[lower-alpha 15] 2,905,109 62,599 2,563,160 [72]
Colombia 2,804,881 72,235 2,616,821 [73]
Poland 2,776,927 66,533 2,473,974 [74]
Iran 2,459,906 70,966 1,923,081 [75]
Mexico 2,333,126 215,547 1,856,543 [76]
Ukraine[lower-alpha 16] 2,047,838 43,391 1,616,891 [77][78]
Peru 1,775,062 60,416 1,721,922 [79][80]
Indonesia
Czech Republic 1,626,033 29,141 1,542,244 [81]
South Africa 1,577,200 54,237 1,502,986 [82][83]
Netherlands[lower-alpha 17] 1,417,772 16,965 No data [85][86]
Canada[lower-alpha 18] 1,192,427 24,066 1,084,029 [89]
Chile[lower-alpha 19] 1,179,772 26,020 1,113,463 [93]
Romania 1,051,779 27,833 983,040 [94]
Iraq 1,031,322 15,257 905,301 [95]
Philippines 1,020,495 17,031 935,695 [96][97]
Belgium[lower-alpha 20] 979,034 24,104 No data [99][100]
Sweden 960,520 14,000 No data [101]
Israel[lower-alpha 21] 837,357 6,345 828,902 [102]
Portugal 835,563 16,973 794,781 [103][104]
Pakistan 810,231 17,530 704,494 [105]
Hungary 769,518 26,625 482,207 [106]
Bangladesh 754,614 11,305 672,319 [107][108]
Jordan 704,540 8,660 671,127 [109]
Serbia[lower-alpha 22] 685,937 6,312 No data [110]
Switzerland[lower-alpha 23] 656,077 10,001 317,600 [111][112]
Austria 604,823 10,055 568,213 [113]
Japan[lower-alpha 24] 575,563 10,055 512,069 [114]
Lebanon 522,763 7,197 453,865 [115]
United Arab Emirates 516,301 1,580 497,140 [116]
Morocco[lower-alpha 25] 509,972 9,005 496,031 [117]
Saudi Arabia 412,216 6,900 395,557 [118]
Malaysia 401,593 1,477 373,397 [119]
Bulgaria 401,109 16,182 332,418 [120][121]
Slovakia 380,498 11,572 No data [122]
Ecuador 375,329 18,389 318,598 [123][124]
Panama 363,533 6,216 353,503 [125]
Belarus 355,924 2,522 346,148 [126]
Greece 337,723 10,179 No data [127]
Croatia 327,737 7,001 306,132 [128]
Azerbaijan[lower-alpha 26] 315,119 4,429 282,786 [129]
Nepal 312,699 3,211 279,279 [130]
Georgia[lower-alpha 27] 307,401 4,077 288,816 [131]
Kazakhstan 300,733 3,512 257,278 [132][133]
Bolivia 300,258 12,885 247,961 [134]
Tunisia 296,343 10,170 246,001 [135]
Palestine 289,120 3,138 259,105 [136]
Paraguay 271,814 6,094 223,606 [137]
Kuwait 269,681 1,535 252,888 [138]
Dominican Republic 265,481 3,462 222,466 [139]
Ethiopia 254,044 3,605 195,547 [140][141]
Moldova[lower-alpha 28] 249,714 5,762 238,423 [142]
Denmark[lower-alpha 29] 248,950 2,479 236,925 [143][144]
Ireland 247,489 4,884 No data [145]
Lithuania 244,555 3,900 220,565 [146][147]
Costa Rica 243,167 3,186 201,784 [148][149]
Slovenia 238,023 4,221 No data [150][151]
Egypt[lower-alpha 30] 224,517 13,168 168,665 [152]
Guatemala 223,025 7,453 199,005 [153]
Armenia 214,064 4,058 195,701 [154]
File:Flag of Honduras (2008 Olympics).svg Honduras 208,356 5,212 78,127 [155][156]
Qatar 203,599 441 184,712 [157]
Bosnia and Herzegovina 197,378 8,464 158,160 [158]
Venezuela 192,498 2,065 175,242 [159]
Oman 190,270 1,983 169,784 [160]
Uruguay 190,096 2,452 160,362 [161][162]
Libya 176,254 3,010 161,676 [163]
Bahrain 172,576 625 161,491 [164]
Nigeria 164,912 2,063 155,012 [165]
Kenya 157,492 2,665 106,836 [166]
North Macedonia 151,122 4,742 130,910 [167]
Myanmar 142,778 3,208 131,951 [168]
Albania 130,736 2,383 107,163 [169][170]
Estonia 121,232 1,148 109,860 [171][172]
Algeria 120,992 3,207 84,299 [173]
South Korea 120,673 1,821 110,248 [174][175]
Latvia 115,316 2,102 105,254 [176][177]
Puerto Rico 114,852 2,285 No data [178][179]
Norway[lower-alpha 31] 111,686 736 54,004 [182]
Kosovo 104,196 2,140 91,972 [183]
Cuba[lower-alpha 32] 103,524 604 97,462 [184][185]
Sri Lanka 103,487 647 94,856 [186][187]
Montenegro 96,930 1,478 92,971 [188]
Kyrgyzstan 94,277 1,589 88,415 [189]
Ghana 92,464 779 90,103 [190]
Zambia 91,418 1,249 89,717 [191][192]
China[lower-alpha 33] 90,599 4,636 85,652 [193]
Uzbekistan 89,355 645 85,976 [194]
Finland[lower-alpha 34] 86,405 911 31,000 [197][198]
Mozambique 69,762 814 64,448 [199]
El Salvador 68,922 2,111 64,667 [200]
Luxembourg 66,007 790 62,183 [201]
Cameroon 65,998 991 57,821 [202][203]
Cyprus[lower-alpha 35] 63,730 303 No data [204]
Thailand 61,699 178 34,402 [205][206]
Singapore 61,063 30 60,704 [207]
Afghanistan 59,576 2,618 52,974 [208]
Namibia 48,011 634 45,740 [209]
Ivory Coast 45,885 285 45,451 [210]
Jamaica 45,212 767 20,729 [211][212]
Botswana[lower-alpha 36] 41,729 684 39,733 [214]
Uganda 41,373 341 40,898 [215][216]
Senegal 40,249 1,107 38,991 [217]
Zimbabwe 38,164 1,565 35,480 [218]
Madagascar 36,045 605 28,868 [219][220]
Malawi 34,031 1,147 31,953 [221]
Mongolia 33,608 97 18,033 [222]
Sudan 33,104 2,349 26,795 [223][224]
Donetsk PR[lower-alpha 37] 32,890 2,502 26,323 [225]
Malta 30,249 413 29,462 [226]
DR Congo[lower-alpha 38] 29,768 763 26,172 [227][228]
Australia[lower-alpha 39] 29,749 910 No data [229]
Maldives 28,588 71 24,494 [230]
Angola 25,942 587 23,341 [231]
Rwanda 24,814 331 23,089 [232][233]
Cape Verde 22,772 211 19,715 [234]
Gabon 22,568 138 19,173 [235]
Syria[lower-alpha 40] 22,265 1,548 16,097 [236]
Guinea 22,087 141 19,558 [237]
French Polynesia 18,744 141 4,842 [238]
Eswatini 18,448 671 17,741 [239]
Mauritania 18,314 455 17,620 [240][241]
Abkhazia[lower-alpha 41] 14,408 222 13,479 [242]
Mali 13,722 476 8,313 [243][244]
Somalia[lower-alpha 42] 13,670 698 5,539 [245]
Tajikistan 13,308 90 13,218 [246][247]
Burkina Faso 13,286 157 13,000 [248][249]
Andorra 13,121 124 12,561 [250]
Haiti 13,017 254 12,143 [251][252]
Togo 12,884 122 10,927 [253]
Guyana 12,826 291 10,944 [254]
Belize 12,631 322 12,193 [255]
Curaçao 12,146 107 11,339 [256]
Hong Kong 11,756 209 11,392 [257]
Cambodia 11,063 82 3,704 [258]
Djibouti 10,931 142 10,510 [259][260]
Papua New Guinea 10,835 105 8,561 [261][262]
Lesotho 10,730 316 6,267 [263]
Congo[lower-alpha 43] 10,678 144 8,208 [264][265]
Aruba 10,570 98 10,245 [266]
South Sudan 10,553 114 10,312 [267]
Bahamas[lower-alpha 44] 10,220 198 9,326 [268][269]
Suriname 10,157 201 9,193 [270]
Trinidad and Tobago 9,947 161 8,281 [271][272]
Guam[lower-alpha 45] 7,939 136 7,735 [54][273]
Benin 7,720 97 7,510 [274][275]
Equatorial Guinea 7,559 107 7,097 [276]
Nicaragua 6,835 181 No data [277]
Iceland 6,456 29 6,244 [278]
Central African Republic 6,359 87 1,924 [279][280]
Yemen 6,220 1,207 2,674 [281]
Northern Cyprus[lower-alpha 46] 6,071 29 5,272 [282]
The Gambia 5,882 174 5,309 [283]
Seychelles 5,170 26 4,675 [284][285]
San Marino 5,058 90 4,880 [286]
Niger 5,048 188 4,715 [287]
Chad 4,779 170 4,406 [288][289]
Saint Lucia 4,508 74 4,344 [290]
Luhansk PR[lower-alpha 37] 4,297 398 3,706 [291]
Gibraltar 4,283 94 4,183 [292]
Sierra Leone 4,046 79 3,045 [293][294]
Somaliland[lower-alpha 47] 3,946 247 2,781 [295][296]
Burundi 3,884 6 773 [297][298]
Comoros 3,833 146 3,664 [299]
Barbados 3,831 44 3,750 [300]
Guinea-Bissau 3,726 67 3,142 [301][302]
Eritrea 3,640 10 3,455 [303]
South Ossetia[lower-alpha 48] 3,296 60+ 2,963 [304]
Jersey 3,233 69 3,172 [305]
U.S. Virgin Islands 3,093 27 3,008 [306][307]
Liechtenstein 2,908 57 2,774 [308]
Vietnam 2,857 35 2,516 [309]
Artsakh[lower-alpha 49] 2,652 31 337 [310][311]
Monaco 2,442 32 2,338 [312]
Turks and Caicos Islands 2,379 17 2,328 [313]
Bermuda 2,362 24 1,737 [314]
São Tomé and Príncipe 2,299 35 2,240 [315]
New Zealand 2,254 26 2,201 [316][317]
Sint Maarten 2,220 27 2,181 [318]
East Timor 2,124 3 1.020 [319][320]
Liberia 2,098 85 1,942 [321]
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines 1,844 11 1,711 [322]
Isle of Man[lower-alpha 50] 1,587 29 1,445 [324]
Bonaire 1,530 15 1,496 [325]
Antigua and Barbuda 1,232 32 1,014 [326]
Mauritius 1,206 17 1,055 [327]
Taiwan[lower-alpha 51] 1,116 12 1,050 [329]
USS Theodore Roosevelt[lower-alpha 45] 1,102 1 751 [330][331]
Charles de Gaulle[lower-alpha 52] 1,081 0 0 [332]
Bhutan 1,053 1 951 [336]
Guernsey 822 14 808 [337]
Diamond Princess[lower-alpha 24] 712 14 653 [338][339]
Faroe Islands 663 1 661 [340][341]
Laos 604 0 50 [342]
Cayman Islands 541 2 521 [343]
Wallis and Futuna 443 5 11 [344]
Sahrawi Arab DR[lower-alpha 53] 353 20 236 [345]
Brunei 224 3 215 [346][347]
British Virgin Islands 194 1 189 [348]
Dominica 172 0 167 [349]
Northern Mariana Islands 164 2 32 [350][351]
Grenada 159 1 157 [352][353]
Costa Atlantica 148 0 148 [354][355]
Greg Mortimer 128 1 No data [356][357]
New Caledonia 124 0 30 [358]
Fiji 111 2 65 [359]
Anguilla 87 0 29 [360]
Falkland Islands 63 0 62 [361]
Flag of Antarctica.svg Antarctica 58 0 0 [362]
Macau 49 0 49 [363]
Saint Kitts and Nevis 44 0 44 [364][365]
Greenland 31 0 31 [366][367]
Vatican City 29 0 27 [368][369]
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 25 0 25 [370][371]
Montserrat 20 1 18 [372]
Sint Eustatius 20 0 20 [373]
Solomon Islands 20 0 18 [374][375]
MS Zaandam[lower-alpha 54] 13 4 No data [378][379]
Coral Princess[lower-alpha 55] 12 3 No data [381]
SeaDream I[lower-alpha 56] 9 0 No data [382][383]
HNLMS Dolfijn[lower-alpha 57] 8 0 8 [384][387]
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 7 0 7 [388][389]
Saba 6 0 6 [390]
Marshall Islands 4 0 4 [391][392]
American Samoa 4 0 3 [393]
Samoa 4 0 2 [394][395]
Vanuatu 3 0 3 [396][397]
Federated States of Micronesia 1 0 1 [398]
Tanzania[lower-alpha 58] No data No data No data [400][401]
As of 25 December 2021 (UTC) · History of cases · History of deaths
Notes
  1. In summary, this article is about the coronavirus pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID‑19, which is caused by the virus SARS‑CoV‑2.[1]
  2. To summarize, this article is about the pandemic, which is caused by the disease COVID-19, which is caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2.
  3. Location: Countries, territories, and international conveyances where cases were diagnosed. The nationality of the infected and the origin of infection may vary. For some countries, cases are split into respective territories and noted accordingly.
  4. Cases: This number shows the cumulative number of confirmed human cases reported to date. The actual number of infections and cases is likely to be higher than reported.[47] Reporting criteria and testing capacity vary between locations.
  5. Deaths: Reporting criteria vary between locations.
  6. Recoveries: May not correspond to actual current figures and not all recoveries may be reported. Reporting criteria vary between locations and some countries do not report recoveries.
  7. The worldwide totals for cases, deaths and recoveries are taken from the Johns Hopkins University Coronavirus Resource Center. They are not sums of the figures for the listed countries and territories.
  8. United States
    1. Figures include cases identified on the Grand Princess.
    2. Figures do not include the unincorporated territories of Puerto Rico, U.S Virgin Islands, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa, all of which are listed separately.
    3. Not all states or overseas territories report recovery data.
    4. Cases include clinically diagnosed cases as per CDC guidelines.[48]
    5. Recoveries and deaths include probable deaths and people released from quarantine as per CDC guidelines.[49][50][51]
    6. Figures from the United States Department of Defense are only released on a branch-by branch basis since April 2020, without distinction between domestic and foreign deployment, and cases may be reported to local health authorities.[52]
    7. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separate from national figures but included in the Navy's totals.
    8. There is also one case reported from Guantanamo Bay Naval Base not included in any other nation or territory's counts.[53] Since April 2020, the United States Department of Defense has directed all bases, including Guantanamo Bay, to not publish case statistics.[52]
  9. France
    1. Including overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion, and collectivities of Saint Barthélemy and Saint Martin.
    2. Excluding collectivities of New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Wallis and Futuna.
    3. Recoveries only include hospitalized cases.[58]
    4. Figures for total confirmed cases and total deaths include data from both hospital and nursing home (ESMS: établissements sociaux et médico-sociaux).[58]
  10. Russia
    1. Including cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol.
    2. Excluding cases from the Diamond Princess cruise ship, which are classified as "on an international conveyance".
  11. Turkey
    1. From 29 July to 24 November 2020, the Ministry of Health did not publish the total number of positive cases. Instead, symptomatic coronavirus cases were shown as "patients".[61][62] The ministry began to report the daily numbers of previously unreported cases on 25 November, announced the total number of cases in the country on 10 December, and started to include asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic cases (who are usually considered recovered after 10 days of isolation[63]) in the number of recoveries on 12 December.
  12. United Kingdom
    1. Excluding all British Overseas Territories and Crown dependencies.
    2. As of 23 March 2020, the UK government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 22 March reported 135 recovered patients.[65]
  13. Spain
    1. The figure for cases excludes serology–confirmed cases.
    2. As of 19 May 2020, the Spanish government does not publish the number of recoveries. The last update on 18 May reported 150,376 recovered patients.
  14. Germany
    1. Not all state authorities count recoveries.[69]
    2. Recoveries include estimations by the Robert Koch Institute.[69][70]
  15. Argentina
    1. Excluding confirmed cases on the claimed territory of the Falkland Islands. Since 11 April 2020, the Argentine Ministry of Health includes them in their official reports.[71]
  16. Ukraine
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Crimea and Sevastopol. Cases in these territories are included in the Russian total.
    2. Excluding cases from the unrecognized Donetsk and Lugansk People's Republics.
  17. Netherlands
    1. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of a) the Netherlands* [the country as opposed to the kingdom; listed here], which in turn includes the Caribbean Netherlands, that are made up of the special municipalities Bonaire*, Saba* and Sint Eustatius*; b) Aruba*; c) Curaçao*; and d) Sint Maarten*. All regions marked with an asterisk are listed separately.
    2. The Dutch Government agency RIVM, responsible for the constituent country the Netherlands, does not count its number of recoveries.[84]
  18. Canada
    1. On 17 July 2020, Quebec, Canada, revised its criteria on recoveries. The Institut national de santé publique claims that "the previous method resulted in 'significant underestimations' of recovered cases."[87] This change resulted in a drop of active cases nationwide, from a total of 27,603 on 16 July to 4,058 on 17 July.[88]
  19. Chile
    1. Including the special territory of Easter Island and cases reported in the Chilean Antarctic Territory.
    2. The Chilean Ministry of Health considered all cases as "recovered" after 14 days since the initial symptoms of the virus, regardless of the health situation of the infected or if succeeding tests indicate the continuing presence of the virus. The only exceptions are casualties, which are not included as recovered.[90]
    3. Deaths include only cases with positive PCR tests and catalogued as a "COVID-19 related death" by the Civil Registry and Identification Service. This number is indicated in the daily reports of the Ministry of Health. A report with the total number of deaths, including suspected cases without PCR test, is released at least weekly since 20 June 2020.[91] In the latest report (5 April 2021), the total number of deaths is 31,513.[92]
  20. Belgium
    1. The number of deaths also includes untested cases and cases in retirement homes that presumably died because of COVID-19, whilst most countries only include deaths of tested cases in hospitals.[98]
  21. Israel
    1. Including cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
    2. Excluding cases from the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
  22. Serbia
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed territory of Kosovo.
  23. Switzerland
    1. Recoveries are estimates by the Tribune de Genève.
  24. 24.0 24.1 Diamond Princess and Japan
    1. The British cruise ship Diamond Princess was in Japanese waters, and the Japanese administration was asked to manage its quarantine, with the passengers having not entered Japan. Therefore, this case is included in neither the Japanese nor British official counts. The World Health Organization classifies the cases as being located "on an international conveyance".
  25. Morocco
    1. Including cases in the disputed Western Sahara territory controlled by Morocco.
    2. Excluding the de facto state of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
  26. Azerbaijan
    1. Excluding the self-declared state of Artsakh.
  27. Georgia
    1. Excluding the de facto states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  28. Moldova
    1. Including the disputed territory of Transnistria.
  29. Denmark
    1. The autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland are listed separately.
  30. Egypt
    1. Includes cases identified on the MS River Anuket.
  31. Norway
    1. Estimation of the number of infected:
      • As of 23 March 2020, according to figures from just over 40 per cent of all GPs in Norway, 20,200 patients have been registered with the "corona code" R991. The figure includes both cases where the patient has been diagnosed with coronavirus infection through testing, and where the GP has used the "corona code" after assessing the patient's symptoms against the criteria by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health.[180]
      • As of 24 March 2020, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health estimates that between 7,120 and 23,140 Norwegians are infected with the coronavirus.[181]
  32. Cuba
    1. Includes cases on the MS Braemar.
    2. Excluding cases from Guantanamo Bay, which is governed by the United States.
  33. China
    1. Excluding 205 asymptomatic cases under medical observation as of 19 December 2020.
    2. Asymptomatic cases were not reported before 31 March 2020.
    3. Excluding Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
    4. Does not include Taiwan.
  34. Finland
    1. Including the autonomous region of the Åland Islands.
    2. The number of recoveries is an estimate based on reported cases which were reported at least two weeks ago and there is no other monitoring data on the course of the disease.[195] The exact number of recoveries is not known, as only a small proportion of patients have been hospitalised.[196]
  35. Cyprus
  36. Botswana
    1. 2,423 people who tested positive have been voluntarily repatriated to their respective countries and are not part of the confirmed case count as a result the Government of Botswana does not include the transferred-out cases.[213]
  37. 37.0 37.1 Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republic
    1. Note that these territories are distinct from the Ukraine-administered regions of the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts.
  38. DR Congo
  39. Australia
    1. Excluding the cases from Diamond Princess cruise ship which are classified as "on an international conveyance". Ten cases, including one fatality recorded by the Australian government.
  40. Syria
    1. Excluding cases from the disputed Golan Heights.
  41. Abkhazia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  42. Somalia
    1. Excluding the de facto state of Somaliland.
  43. Congo
    1. Also known as the Republic of the Congo and not to be confused with the DR Congo.
  44. Bahamas
    1. Some of these deaths may still be under investigation as stated in the Ministry's press release.
  45. 45.0 45.1 Guam and USS Theodore Roosevelt
    1. Cases for the USS Theodore Roosevelt, currently docked at Guam, are reported separately.
  46. Northern Cyprus
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Cyprus.
  47. Somaliland
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Somalia.
  48. South Ossetia
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Georgia.
  49. Artsakh
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Azerbaijan.
  50. Isle of Man
    1. Recoveries are presumed. Defined as "An individual testing positive for coronavirus who completes the 14 day self-isolation period from the onset of symptoms who is at home on day 15, or an individual who is discharged from hospital following more severe symptoms."[323]
  51. Taiwan
    1. Including cases from the ROCS Pan Shi.[328]
  52. Charles de Gaulle
    1. Including cases on the escort frigate Chevalier Paul.
    2. Florence Parly, Minister of the Armed Forces, reported to the National Assembly's National Defense and Armed Forces Committee [fr] that 2010 sailors of the carrier battle group led by Charles de Gaulle had been tested, with 1081 tests returning positive so far.[332] Many of these cases were aboard Charles de Gaulle, some of the cases were reportedly aboard French frigate Chevalier Paul, and it is unclear if any other ships in the battle group had cases on board.[333][334][335]
  53. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
    1. Cases from this de facto state are not counted by Morocco.
  54. MS Zaandam
    1. Including cases from MS Rotterdam.
    2. The MS Rotterdam rendezvoused with the Zaandam on 26 March off the coast of Panama City to provide support and evacuate healthy passengers. Both have since docked in Florida.[376][377]
    3. MS Zaandam and Rotterdam's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  55. Coral Princess
    1. The cruise ship Coral Princess has tested positive cases since early April 2020 and has since docked in Miami.[380]
    2. Coral Princess's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  56. SeaDream I
    1. SeaDream I's numbers are currently not counted in any national figures.
  57. HNLMS Dolfijn
    1. All 8 cases currently associated with Dolfijn were reported while the submarine was at sea in the waters between Scotland and the Netherlands.[384]
    2. It is unclear whether the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) is including these cases in their total count, but neither their daily update details nor their daily epidemiological situation reports appear to have mentioned the ship, with a breakdown of cases listing the twelve provinces of the country of the Netherlands (as opposed to the kingdom) accounting for all the cases in the total count.[385][386]
  58. Tanzania
    1. Figures for Tanzania are "No data" as the country stopped publishing figures on coronavirus cases on 29 April 2020.[399] Figures as of that date were 509 cases, 21 deaths, and 183 recoveries.[400][401]

Name[edit | edit source]

In February 2020, the WHO announced a name for the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2: COVID-19. It replaced the name "2019-nCoV."[402] "Covi" is for "coronavirus," "D" for "disease," and "19" for the year 2019 – the year it was first detected. They said they did not want the name to have any person, place, or animal in it because people might blame the disease on that place, person, or animal. For example, it did not use the word "Wuhan." They also wanted the name to be easy to say out loud.[403]

Mortality rate of COVID-19[edit | edit source]

The current death rate of COVID-19

According to an article in Market Watch dated on February 27, 2020, the overall case mortality rate in China was 2.3%. However, these results might be severely different between different age groups and between men and women. People over the age of 70 experienced a rate of mortality 4-5 times that of the average. Men were more likely to die than women (2.8% versus 1.7% for women) possibly due to lifestyle, such as it being more possible in men to drink and smoke, making the risk of having a respiratory illness more possible, and thus more vulnerable. [404]These numbers were the conclusion of a study by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention using 72,314 COVID-19 cases in mainland China as of Feb. 11. At that point this was the largest sample of cases for such a study.[405]

On March 5, 2020, the WHO released the case fatality rate.[406]

Race and racism[edit | edit source]

COVID-19 did not affect everyone in each country the same way.[407] As of May 2020, APM Research Lab said the death rate among black Americans was 2.4 times as high as for white Americans and 2.2 times as high as for Latino and Asian Americans.[408] In July 2020, The New York Times printed data from the Centers for Disease Control showing that black and Latino Americans were three times as likely to become sick and twice as likely to die as white Americans. This was not only in large cities but also in rural areas. This was not only for old people but for people in all age groups. Native Americans were also more likely than whites to become sick and die. Asian Americans were 1.3 times as likely as whites to become sick.[409]

Camara Jones, an epidemiologist who once worked for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said this was socioeconomic and not because of any natural difference in black and white people's bodies.[410] In the United States, black citizens are more likely to work jobs where they serve the public directly and to ride on public transport rather than take their own cars to work. This makes them more likely to be infected than people who work in private offices or from home. Sharrelle Barber, an epidemiologist and biostatistician from Drexel University, also said black Americans can live in crowded neighborhoods where social distancing is harder to do and healthy food harder to find.[411] Both Barber and Jones blamed the long history of racism in the United States for these things. Three senators, Kamala Harris, Cory Booker and Elizabeth Warren said the federal government should start recording the race of COVID-19 patients so scientists could study this problem.[411]

In June, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) told the public that people using the United States' government's Medicare health program had different results depending on race. Four times as many black Medicare patients went to hospitals for COVID-19 than white Medicare patients. There were twice as many hospitalized Hispanic patients than white patients. There were three hospitalized Asian patients for every two hospitalized white patients. The head of CMS, Seema Verma, said this was mostly because of socioeconomic status.[412]

In the United Kingdom, twice as many black COVID-19 patients died as white COVID-19 patients. Other non-white people, like people from India and Bangladesh, were also more likely to die of COVID-19 than whites. Britain's Office of National Statistics said that the differences in money and education explained some of this difference but not all of it. They also said they did not know whether non-white patients caught COVID-19 more often or whether they caught more severe cases. Only female Chinese Britons were less likely to die of COVID-19 than white Britons.[413]

Indigenous peoples[edit | edit source]

Native Americans in the United States have shown more deaths from COVID-19 than the rest of the U.S.[414] As of May, the Navajo Nation had 88 deaths and 2,757 cases, and the money they had been promised by the government arrived several weeks late. Only 30% of the people in the Navajo Nation have pipes with running water, which made it difficult for people to wash their hands.[415]

Scientists from Chapman University made a plan to protect the Tsimane people in Bolivia from COVID-19 and said this plan would also work for other indigenous peoples living on their own land. The scientists said that many indigenous peoples have problems that make COVID-19 more dangerous for them, like poverty, less clean water, and other lung diseases. Hospitals may be a long distance away, and racism can affect the way doctors and nurses react. But they also sometimes have things that help, like traditions of making decisions together and the ability to grow food nearby.[414] The scientists found people who spoke the Tsimane language as a first language and made teams to go to Tsimane towns to warn them about COVID-19. They also used radio stations. They said the best plan was for whole communities to decide to isolate. They found this worked well because the Tsimane already usually made their big decisions together as a community in special meetings and already had a tradition of quarantining new mothers. The Chapman scientists said their plan would also work for other indigenous peoples who also make decisions together, like the Tsimane. [416][414] The Waswanipi Cree in Canada, the Mapoon people in Australia, and many groups in South America already tried plans like these on their own.[414][417]

George Floyd protests[edit | edit source]

In May 2020, police officers in Minneapolis, Minnesota killed an unarmed black man called George Floyd while they were arresting him. There were weeks of protests all over the world against police brutality and racism. Experts said they were worried protesters and police could spread SARS-CoV-2 to each other. Other experts said some of the reasons that the protests were so big was because non-white people were being killed by COVID-19 more than white people were, because poor leadership in the COVID-19 crisis reminded them of poor leadership about racism, and because the lockdowns shut down workplaces and other things. This meant people had more time to protest.[417] [418][419][420]

African Americans[edit | edit source]

African Americans are more likely to catch the virus compared to their white counterparts in the United States,[421] and are also more likely to die from it.[422][423] 50,000 African Americans died of COVID-19 in 2020.[424] African Americans are the least likely to get vaccinated against the disease.[425]

Romani people[edit | edit source]

Romani people (Gypsies) in Europe were hard-hit by COVID-19.[426]

Hispanics[edit | edit source]

Latinos have been at a higher risk of hospitalization or death from COVID-19 in the United States.[427]

Conspiracy theories[edit | edit source]

In early 2020, some people began to think that the SARS-CoV-2 may have been made on purpose in a laboratory and either released by accident or on purpose like a weapon. Some Iranians thought the Americans might have made it.[428] Chinese state media said COVID-19 came from the United States to China and not the other way around.[429] Some Americans thought the Chinese might have made it.[430] Some Britons thought it might have been created by accident by 5G cell phone networks.[431]

On March 17, 2020, scientists from Columbia University and other places published a paper in Nature Medicine showing that SARS-CoV-2 was almost surely not made by humans in a laboratory. They did this by comparing the genomes of different viruses to each other.[26] The scientists saw that SARS-CoV-2 did not match any of the viral backbones that already exist for virologists to use.[432] Within a few weeks, it became one of the most cited scientific papers in history, meaning that other scientists were reading and using it.

Graphs[edit | edit source]

Timelines of COVID-19[edit | edit source]

Map of national and subnational lockdowns as of 29 November 2020 (table; more details)
  Current national lockdown
  Current subnational lockdown
  Former national lockdown
  Former subnational lockdown
  No lockdown or no data

On December 31, 2019, China alerted WHO to several cases of unusual pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province. [435]

On January 20, 2020, Chinese premier Li Keqiang called for efforts to stop and control the pneumonia epidemic caused by a novel coronavirus.[436] As of February 5, 2020, 24,588 cases have been confirmed,[437][438] including in every province-level division of China.[437] A larger number of people may have been infected, but not detected (especially mild cases).[439][440] The first local transmission of the virus outside China occurred in Vietnam between family members,[441] while the first local transmission not involving family occurred in Germany, on January 22, when a German man contracted the disease from a Chinese business visitor at a meeting.[442] As of 5 February 2020, 493 deaths have been attributed to the virus since the first confirmed death on January 9, with 990 recoveries.[443][437] The first death outside China was reported in the Philippines, in a 44-year-old Chinese male on February 1.[444] but another source reported: "The first cases of COVID-19 outside of China were identified on January 13 in Thailand and on January 16 in Japan".[445]

There has been testing which have showed over 6000 confirmed cases in China,[446] some of whom are healthcare workers.[447][448]

Confirmed cases have also been reported in Thailand, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Macau, Hong Kong, the United States (Everett, Washington and Chicago),[448] Singapore,[449] Vietnam,[450] France[451] and Nepal.[452]

The World Health Organization declared that this is a Public Health Emergency of International Concern since January 30, 2020.

Bloomberg News and other business publications have reported several plant closures, travel restrictions, and imposed quarantines as a result of this outbreak.[453]

As of February 10, 2020 there have been 40,235 confirmed cases reported of people infected by the virus in China. Also reported were 909 deaths, and 319 cases in 24 other countries, including one death, according to WHO chief Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.[454]

On November 14, 2020, there were 53,853,718 global COVID-19 cases and 1,311,524 deaths with cases in 217 countries and territories.[455]

China[edit | edit source]

  • The first cases of COVID-19 were detected in Wuhan, Hubei, Mainland China in December of 2019.[456]
  • On Feb. 4, 2020, the Seattle Times reported that Around 2020 Chinese new year authorities closed down travel from China to Macau. As a result visits fell eighty percent.[457]
  • Feb 6, 2020, the COVID-19 whistleblower, Li Wenliang, dies of the disease.
  • On February 6, 2020, according to Chinese authorities, a man from the United States who tested positive for the virus died.[458]
  • On February 25, 2020 the Asian Scientist Magazine reported Chinese Scientists Sequence Genome Of COVID-19 [459]
  • According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention, China had the largest number of confirmed cases and deaths on March 1, 2020.[460]
  • On March 3, 2020 Science (journal) reported:
    • China built two new hospitals in one week just for patients of COVID-19
    • The article praised the way China has handled this crisis, but said "draconian" measures were used to achieve success.[461]
  • On March 6, 2020, CNN reported that a hotel used as a COVID-19 quarantine center collapsed. Seventy people were trapped in a collapsed Quanzhou hotel.[462]
  • The Chinese economy was greatly affected by the virus, and many factories shut down during the spike of cases in China during the early months of the pandemic.[463]
  • As of October 30, 2020, the number of cases of the virus in China were generally going down, with only 771 new cases being reported in the month of October.[464]

United States[edit | edit source]

  • The first case of COVID-19 in the United States was detected in a man from the state of Washington on January 21, 2020.[465]
  • On February 27, 2020, US President Donald Trump appointed Vice President Mike Pence to lead the US response to COVID-19.[466]
  • On February 29, 2020, the first death in the US was reported from the state of Washington.[467]
  • On March 3, 2020 CBS reported 15 states with confirmed cases.[468]
  • Movements such as elbow bumps began replacing handshakes , as handshakes spread the virus and bacteria more.[469]
  • On March 6, 2020, the CDC announced that one million test kits would be distributed.[470][471]
  • On March 9, 2020, the US stock market was approaching bear territory.[472]
  • On March 9, 2020, there were also scattered reports that some were quarantined while their household members were not.[473]
  • On March 10, 2020, the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services, Alex Azar, said that it is was not known how many Americans tested positive for the virus. This was because many of the test kits went out to private companies.[474]
  • On March 10, 2020, the governor of New York, Andrew Cuomo, announced that the city of New Rochelle was the largest cluster of COVID-19 cases in the state. Among other things done to contain the virus in New Rochelle, the National Guard was sent to the city to hand out food and disinfect buildings.[475]
  • On March 26, the United States surpass Italy and China's cases, becoming the epicenter for a while.[476]
  • On April 3, 2020, the CDC first recommended the use of cloth face coverings by the general public to reduce the spread of the virus in places such as grocery stores and pharmacies.[477]
  • On April 11, the U.S became the most death in the world. [478]
  • On July 22, 2020, the United States surpassed 1,000 daily COVID-19 deaths for a second time.[479]
  • On September 22, 2020, the United States reached 200,000 deaths from the virus.[480]
  • Between September to October, there was a COVID-19 outbreak at the White House, causing many officials to be diagnosed with the infection, including President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump.[481]
  • In December 2020, California surpassed over 30,000 new cases in a day.[482]
  • On December 11, 2020, the Food and Drug Administration said doctors could give people the Pfizer vaccine.[32][34]
  • On December 14, 2020, the State of New York gave people the first vaccines, starting with health care workers.[32][34]
  • On December 26, 2020, California had a record breaking 65,055 new cases in a day after Christmas.[483]
  • California became the first state to surpass 2 million cases in December 2020.[484]

Economic effects of COVID-19 in the United States[edit | edit source]

Italy[edit | edit source]

  • On February 27, 2020, according to the EU Observer, a dozen towns in the northern regions of Lombardy and Veneto were under lockdown, with around 50,000 citizens not allowed to leave, and over 200 reported cases of COVID n Italy.[489]
  • On March 4, 2020, according to the Guardian , the Italian government has ordered the closing of all of Italy's schools and universities until 15 March, 2020[490]
  • On March 5, 2020 the Guardian reported: "Italian educational institutions close as Covid-19 deaths pass 100"[491]
  • On March 8, 2020, Al Jazeera reported that after a daily infection rate of 1,247 cases, Lombardy together with ten other areas were sealed off to try to quarantine 16 million people.[492] The cities of Milan and Venice were in the quarantined area. [493]
  • On March 10, 2020, it was reported that Italy was under quarantine.[494][495]
  • On October 5, 2020, Italy imposed a new lockdown and set of restrictions after previously relaxing them. This was due to a second wave of cases that was even worse than the one in spring.[496]

Iran[edit | edit source]

  • On 28 February 2020, the BBC reported COVID-19 deaths in Iran were at least 210.[497]
  • March 3, 2020 multiple Iranian government officials including deputy health minister Iraj Harirchi and vice president of women and family affairs Masoumeh Ebtekar, who served as a spokesperson during the Iran hostage crisis, had contracted COVID-19.[498][499]

Canada[edit | edit source]

  • The first case of COVID-19 in Canada was detected in a man from Toronto on January 25, 2020.[500]
  • On March 12, 2020, Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, the wife of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, tested positive for coronavirus. The Prime Minister and his wife isolated for 14 days.[501]
  • On April 6, 2020, Canada’s Chief Public Health Officer, Theresa Tam, said that people should use simple cloth facemasks to help slow the spread of the virus.[502]
  • On May 1, 2020, Canada surpassed 200 daily coronavirus deaths.[503]
  • On November 12, 2020, Canada surpassed 5,000 daily COVID-19 cases.[503]
  • On December 26, 2020, Canada confirmed first two cases of mutant coronavirus strain from England.[504]

South Africa[edit | edit source]

CoViD-19 outbreak cases in South Africa.png
  • The new coronavirus strain, called the 501.V2 Variant, was first discovered in South African province Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal and Western Cape. It spreads more rapidly.[505]

Australia[edit | edit source]

New Zealand[edit | edit source]

  • The first case of COVID-19 in New Zealand was detected in late February 2020 in a person in their 60s.[507]
  • On March 24, 2020, New Zealand reported over 100 daily coronavirus cases for the first time.[508]
  • From April to November 2020, New Zealand reported between 0 to 50 daily cases.[508]
  • Between August 25, 2021 and August 31, 2021, the whole of New Zealand had been temporarily increased to its maximum lockdown level, Level 4, due to the delta variant.[509] Most of the cases during August 2021 were originated from New South Wales.[510] As of September 6, 2021, all of New Zealand has dropped to Level 2, while Auckland remains at Level 4.[509]

Cruise ships[edit | edit source]

  • On the Diamond Princess cruise ship, out of 3,711 total passengers and crew members, 621 people, or 17% of all the people on board the ship tested positive for COVID-19. The ship ended its quarantine on February 18th.[511]

Africa[edit | edit source]

Food and hunger[edit | edit source]

The pandemic made it more difficult for millions of people all over the world to get enough food. People lost their jobs, so they did not have money to buy food. Farms were shut down, so there was less food made. Processing plants and food factories were shut down, so less food was made ready for people to eat.[513]

In April, Arif Husain of the United Nations' World Food Program said that 130 million more people could go hungry, in addition to the 135 million who were already hungry before the pandemic began. He said that poorer countries would be more affected than rich countries because the way they move raw food from farms to cities and other places where people live is less organized and relies more on human beings than on automatic systems.[513]

This hunger crisis is different from crises in other years because it happened to the whole world at the same time. That meant that people working in other countries could not help by sending money home.[513][514]

All over the world, children who ate meals at school had less access to food when the schools were shut down.[513]

Scientists from the University of Michigan said the pandemic was making it harder for people to find food. In a study published in May, they said one in seven Americans over age 50 said they had trouble getting enough food before the pandemic, and it got worse when senior centers that provided meals were closed.[515] Federal and state governments started programs to bring food to older people and children. There were also more food donation drives in towns.[514]

Old people[edit | edit source]

In the United States, nursing homes had some of the highest rates of infection and death,

40% of all COVID-19 deaths in the country. Nursing homes are group homes for old people who need medical care, for disabled people who need medical care, and for people recovering from severe sickness or injury, like stroke patients.

Many people who live in nursing homes pay through the government program Medicaid, which pays less than Medicare or regular insurance companies. In June, many American nursing homes were caught throwing their regular patients out so they could make room for COVID-19 patients who could pay them more. Because nursing homes had stopped allowing visitors, it took longer for them to get caught. United States law requires nursing homes to warn patients 30 days before kicking them out, but the nursing homes did not do this.

Some of the nursing homes took the COVID-19 patients because state governments asked them to and they say they sent their elderly residents away because they were worried they would catch COVID-19 from the sick patients.[516]

Environment[edit | edit source]

Because so many governments told people to stay at home, there was less air pollution than usual for that time of year. Pollution in New York fell by 50% and the use of coal in China fell by 40%.[517] The European Space Agency showed pictures taken from a satellite of China's pollution disappearing during quarantine and coming back when everyone went back to work.[518]

The pandemic and shutdowns made people use less electricity. In the United States, people got less of their electricity from coal power but kept using gas and renewable power like wind and solar power. This was because coal plants are more expensive to run, so power companies used them less.[519]

Pollution from before the pandemic also affected what happened after people became sick. Scientists saw that more people died from COVID-19 in places with large amounts of air pollution. One team of scientists from Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg looked at air pollution information from satellites and statistics on COVID-19 deaths in Italy, France, Germany and Spain and saw that places with large amounts of nitrogen dioxide pollution had more people die from COVID-19. Nitrogen dioxide can damage the lungs.[520][521]

The shutdowns and social distancing also affected animals. Human beings started staying at home about the same time in the spring when sea turtles like to come on land to lay their eggs. Turtle scientists in the United States and Thailand both reported more nests than usual on seashores in Florida and Phuket. They say it is because people are not coming to the beach or bringing their dogs to the beach and because there are fewer boats in the water nearby. Scientists also say they see more dugong and dolphins.[522][523][524] With fewer cars driving down roads, salamanders, frogs, and other amphibians were able to cross them for their spring migration. According to citizen scientists from Big Night Maine, a group that watches amphibians, four amphibians made it across the roads alive for every one amphibian killed by cars. Most years, it is only two to one.[525]

Not all ocean mammals did well. According to marine biologists in Florida, manatee deaths in April and May were 20% higher than in 2019. They say this was because many people decided to go boating because other things to do were closed.[526]

Stopping the next pandemic[edit | edit source]

Researchers from the San Diego Zoo Global had the idea for a system that people could use to find dangerous germs before they become pandemics or even before they jump from other animals to humans. They said it was important to watch the wildlife trade, like in the Wuhan wet market. The scientists said that over the past eleven years it has gotten easier and easier to sequence viral genomes, and it does not have to be done by a large lab or by a government any more. The scientists said it would be better to spread the work out among more people.[527][528]

Prevention and treatment[edit | edit source]

Avoiding traveling and staying home will greatly reduce your risk from catching COVID-19. Staying home doesn't apply if one is sick and needs medical care. Get enough rest and stay hydrated._CDC-587|[529] Wearing a mask and washing your hands can prevent the virus from spreading.[530] Masks should not be placed on children under 2 years of age, people who have trouble breathing, have a respiratory or other medical condition which renders one unable to wear a mask safely, or anyone who is unable to remove the mask without help. Covering coughs and sneezes also reduce the risk of spreading the virus, but one can infect someone else by touching things with coughed/sneezed-in hands. Making sure not to share drinking glasses, cups and particularly other objects which people will drink or eat out of is important if one assumes they are infected or tested positive in the past. Washing eating utensils and other oral eating objects is preferable and cleaning surfaces or possessions which have been repeatedly touched is also important. These include, according to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, phones, remote controls, counters, tabletops, doorknobs, bathroom fixtures, toilets, keyboards, tablets, and bedside tables. Avoiding touching your face, nose, or mouth with your hands. Avoiding public transportation, taxis or taking rides with others can stop one's exposure to the virus. _CDC-587|[529] Rumors spread about high doses of Vitamin C preventing COVID-19, but these as of October 14, 2020, there has been no conclusive evidence to support this idea.[531] However, there has been evidence pointing to the fact that dosing patients with Vitamin C, either through mouth or IV can reduce time on mechanical ventilators for seriously ill patients by 14%.[532]Drinking tea such as black tea and green tea can inhibit the virus.[533] Staying home for the holidays, having a small gathering of close friends and family members who are consistently taking measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and celebrating virtually through social media can prevent being infected by the virus. Airports, bus stations, train stations, public transport, gas stations, and rest stops are all places travelers can be exposed to catching the virus.[534] Eating a healthy diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, getting rest and sleep, exercising, consuming raw honey, probiotics, garlic, mushrooms and elderberry can boost the immune system.[535] Playing video games to pass time during quarantine can prevent the virus from spreading.[536] Flavanols and proanthocyanidins which are chemicals found in dark chocolate, grapes and green tea may block SARS-CoV-2 proteins.[537] Places you are most likely to catch the virus are churches, hair and nail salons, cruise ships, hospitals and the doctor’s office, restaurants and bars, theaters, sporting events, concert venues, buses, restrooms, elevators, the gym, airplanes, hotels, public swimming pools, nightclubs and the beach.[538] Vaccinated people still need to wear a mask.[539] Flying in a private jet can prevent the spread of coronavirus.[540] Smoking marijuana and tobacco can further damage your lungs.[541] Getting vaccinated can prevent new virus strains.[542]

List of terminology associated with COVID-19[edit | edit source]

  • SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19
  • 2019-nCoV is the old name for SARS-CoV-2
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 is the complete name for COVID-19
  • community spread is the spread of the disease without a known travel connection
  • clusters are groups of COVID-19 cases in which many people in the same area became infected with COVID-19

Notes[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization (WHO).
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